When a corporation repurchases its shares from investors (both public and private), it pays each shareholder the current market value of their shares. It takes back ownership of the shares that were previously distributed. 

A firm can buy back its shares in two ways: either from other shareholders or on the open market. Buying back shares of stock has become the primary method of returning capital to shareholders, surpassing dividends in recent decades. Due to the expenditures involved, blue-chip businesses are far more likely to exercise buybacks, albeit smaller corporations may opt out if they so want. 

What is Buyback? 

When a company decides to buy back shares from its current owners, it can do it through a tender offer or the open market. This is called a share or stock buyback. When this occurs, the share price is greater than what the market is now reflecting. 

The secondary market is a place where firms may buy back their shares when they want to use the open market method. However, participants in the tender offer might take advantage of it by filing or tendering a portion of their shares within a certain time frame. As an alternative to paying dividends when they’re due, it might be seen as a way to reward current shareholders. 

Still, there are several reasons why business owners could repurchase their shares. To get the most out of these decisions and reap the benefits that come with them, people should prioritize understanding what drives them. 

Understanding Buyback 

Companies can reinvest in themselves through a repurchase. The percentage of shares owned by investors rises as the market’s number of outstanding shares falls. If a business thinks its stock is cheap, it can repurchase shares to pay back investors. 

Because the corporation is confident in its present operations, a repurchase also increases the share’s fraction of earnings. Keeping the price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio constant will cause the stock price to rise. 

The buyback of shares lowers the total number of shares in circulation, increasing the value of each share as a proportion of the company. This means that if the stock price goes up or earnings per share (EPS) go up, the price-to-earnings ratio (P/E) goes down. A share repurchase shows investors that the company is well-prepared for unexpected expenses and that economic problems are unlikely to arise. 

Compensation is also another rationale for a buyback. Employees and managers are frequently showered with stock awards and options by their employers. Buying back shares and issuing them to management and staff is a common way for corporations to give incentives and stock options. This ensures that current owners’ holdings will not be diminished.  

Importance of Buyback 

Shareholders benefit from buybacks in normal market conditions in the following ways: 

To start, if the value of the firm stays the same but the number of shares is reduced, the share price will go up. But that is conditional on how the market acts. 

There will be fewer shares in circulation, which should increase profits per share (EPS). The proportion of the company’s profits that go to shareholders will increase. 

A repurchase is not subject to taxes until the shareholder decides to sell their shares. 

Companies can increase shareholder value through share buybacks. If all goes according to plan, a company’s share price should rise when it reinvests a portion of its profits in the form of new shares. 

Envision a publicly traded corporation where a single shareholder owns one hundred (10%) of the 1,000 shares. Through its share repurchase programme, the corporation has reduced its entire share capital to 900 shares by purchasing 100 shares. The shareholder’s part in the company’s earnings has just grown from 1.11 percent to 11.1 percent, giving them a larger proportion than before. Shares should also rise in value, which would entice additional buyers. 

Criticism of Buyback 

Companies often reinvest in their shareholders through share buybacks. Share buybacks may have some possible drawbacks, though. A few examples of the most typical are: 

Reduction in the Amount of Available Funds: 

Companies can reinvest their cash in the form of share buybacks instead of putting it towards other initiatives or paying off debt. In the event of a recession, the business might be more exposed financially. 

Affected in a Way That Lifts EPS: 

If a corporation repurchases its own shares at a low stock price, an artificial increase in earnings per share (EPS) can occur. Although this doesn’t always indicate the company’s true financial health, it might increase the stock’s appeal to investors. 

Potentially Difficult for Stockholders: 

When a business repurchases its stock at a price higher than its market value, it effectively pays the owners less. If the share price drops down the road, this might be a dangerous move for shareholders. 

Examples of Buyback 

Despite a successful fiscal year, a company’s stock price has lagged behind those of its competitors. The business has announced a share repurchase programme to buy back 10% of its outstanding shares at the current market price as a way to reward and return capital to investors. Before the repurchase, the company’s profits per share (EPS) were $1, given that there were 1 million outstanding shares and $1 million in earnings. Its price-to-earnings ratio is 20 at the current share price of $20. Repurchasing 100,000 shares would result in a new earnings per share (EPS) of $1.11, or $1 million in earnings distributed across 900,000 shares, assuming all other factors remain constant. The stock would have to rise 11% to $22.22 for the P/E ratio to remain unchanged at 20. 

In summary

The practice of repurchasing existing shares of stock has become popular among corporations in recent years. In particular, the IT and banking industries have been very active with their repurchase programmes. As a result, traders need to keep an eye on the BSE repurchase stock list. Nonetheless, the S&P 500 Buyback Index might help inexperienced investors identify businesses that have been engaging in active share repurchasing. 

Frequently Asked Questions

A special resolution is necessary to get shareholder approval for buy-back bids that surpass 10% of the paid-up equity capital and free reserves. It is sufficient for the board of directors to approve the buy-back by a board resolution if it is not above this level. 


Stock buybacks are good for investors because they get their money back plus a bonus on top of what the stock is worth on the market. Also, shareholders who hang on to their shares see a rise in their value; nevertheless, buybacks aren’t always beneficial to shareholders. 

Companies can increase shareholder value through share buybacks. If all goes according to plan, a company’s share price should rise when it reinvests a portion of its profits in the form of new shares. 

Because fewer investors get a larger share of the earnings, buybacks “re-slice the pie” of profits. The principal uses of a company’s cash are stock buybacks, operational investment, debt repayment, mergers and acquisitions, and dividend payments to shareholders.

In a share buyback, a company reduces its share capital by purchasing its own shares from the market, cancelling them, and then reselling them. As a result of a smaller number of shares in circulation, there will be a greater return on future dividends and a bigger stake for each shareholder. 

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