Gordon growth model

Gordon growth model

Finding a stock’s true value remains crucial in the constantly changing world of financial analysis. The Gordon growth model is a crucial instrument that sheds light on this challenging endeavour. This technique, known as the gordon-shapiro or dividend discount model, or DDM, uses a stock’s anticipated future dividends to determine its intrinsic value. The key tenet of the concept, created by economists Myron J. Gordon and Eli Shapiro in the 1950s, is the idea of a steady dividend increase indefinitely. 


This article delves into the fundamentals of the Gordon growth model, revealing its workings, exploring its formula, evaluating its merits and limitations, and providing specific examples to improve our understanding of this crucial tool in the world of stock valuation as we navigate the complex web of financial valuations.  

What is the Gordon growth model? 

The Gordon growth model is a stock valuation method that aims to determine a stock’s fair value by considering its dividends and expected growth rate. This model was developed with the help of two economists from the 1950s, Myron J. Gordon and Eli Shapiro. It is based on the idea that a company’s dividends will grow continuously indefinitely. This fundamental presumption allows analysts to calculate the present value of all upcoming dividends and determine the stock’s intrinsic value. 

Understanding the Gordon growth model 

The Gordon growth model, which offers a special lens to understand the essence of company valuation, ingeniously weaves the threads of finance and temporal value at its core. The perpetual growth assumption for dividends serves as the basis for this model’s operations, which assume an ongoing pattern of dividend growth. The approach is predicated on the idea that rising dividends in the future warrant a distinct valuation in terms of today’s value. The Gordon growth model captures the relationship between dividend growth, required return, and a stock’s intrinsic value by condensing finance’s intricacies into a straightforward formula. This understanding allows investors and analysts to fully understand the complex dance between dividends and valuation, allowing them to make well-informed investment decisions. 

Formula of Gordon growth model 

The Gordon growth model’s mathematical formula is as follows: 

Value of stock (P0) = D0 * (1 + g) / (r – g) 

In the given equation: 

P0: This value represents the stock’s intrinsic worth. 

D0: Indicates the current dividend amount per share. 

g: Indicates the dividend growth rate is constant. 

R stands for the necessary rate of return or discount rate. 

Pros and cons of Gordon growth model 

Like any financial tool, the Gordon growth model has advantages and disadvantages. 


  • Simplicity 

The formula for the model is simple and easy to understand, making it suitable for quick valuations. 

  • Emphasis on Dividends 

The model emphasises dividends as a fundamental component of stock valuation, which is especially important for income-focused investors. 

  • Long-Term Utility 

The model’s perpetual growth premise is appropriate for evaluating established businesses with reliable dividend practices. 


  • Application Restrictions 

The strategy best suits businesses with a track record of steady dividend increases. It might not be appropriate for newer or high-growth companies that don’t pay dividends. 

  • Constant Growth Assumption 

The model’s reliance on a constant growth rate may only be accurate for some enterprises, leading to uncertain values. 

  • Sensitivity to Inputs 

Accurate estimation is difficult because even small changes in growth and discount rates can result in significant changes in calculated intrinsic value. 

Examples of Gordon growth model 

Consider the following examples to understand how the Gordon growth model might be used in real-world situations. 

Company XYZ pays a $US2 per share dividend now, with an estimated dividend growth rate of 5% and an 8% needed rate of return. 

Using the Gordon growth model: 

P0 = $US2 * (1 + 0.05) / (0.08 – 0.05) =  $US2.10 / 0.03 =  $US70 

The stock’s intrinsic value comes out to be $US70 per share. 

Frequently Asked Questions

The Gordon growth model is a name for a financial valuation method. Assuming a steady growth rate and forecasting future dividends calculates a company’s intrinsic value. The model summarises this relationship in a straightforward formula and offers insights into how dividends, growth rates, and necessary returns affect a stock’s value. 

The Gordon growth model may only be appropriate for some businesses. It functions best for businesses with a consistent payout history and predictable growth rates. The model’s assumptions can be questioned by young, high-growth businesses that don’t pay dividends or those with unpredictable payment patterns. It is not ideal for businesses that considerably deviate from continuous dividend growth because its effectiveness depends on a company’s attributes aligning with the model’s underlying assumptions. 

The Gordon growth model is the best match for analysing well-established businesses with a track record of continuous dividend payments. Using it when predicting consistent, long-term growth rates is practical. It emphasises the importance of dividends and their growth in determining a stock’s value, making it a useful tool for investors looking to evaluate the intrinsic value of dividend-paying firms over the long run. 

The current dividend per share (D0), the constant dividend growth rate (g), and the required rate of return (r) or discount rate (r) are the three main inputs needed by the Gordon growth model. The formula is shaped by these inputs as a whole, which enables analysts to calculate the intrinsic value of a stock based on its anticipated dividends and growth rate. 

There are drawbacks to the Gordon growth model. It makes the unchanging assumptions of perpetual growth and a steady dividend growth rate, which may not apply to all businesses. The model is susceptible to estimation errors because its accuracy is very sensitive to variations in growth and discount rates. Additionally, it works best for businesses with a history of paying dividends, excluding those without. In some cases, these restrictions can result in incorrect appraisals. 

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