Stock options

Stock options

Stock options are preferred as a financial instrument by asset management companies, portfolio managers, foreign institutional investors, and other financial institutions. It provides the benefits of high-exposure betting based on exact knowledge of stock price movement in a specific direction. They are typically used to hedge against stock price declines or speculate on future price movements. 

What is a stock option? 

An agreement between two parties known as a stock option grants the buyer the right to buy or sell the underlying stocks at a fixed price and within a predetermined time frame. There are two types of stock options: call options and put options.  

Stock options are a type of equity derivative and may also be referred to as equity options because shares of stock or a stock index make up their underlying asset. They can be traded on exchanges or over-the-counter (OTC). Exchanges that trade stock options include the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) and the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). OTC options are typically traded through dealer networks. 

Understanding stock options  

Options fall within the category of derivative financial products, which means that the value of an underlying security or asset serves as the foundation for or a source of its value. Shares of a company’s stock are what that asset is in the case of stock options.  

An option is a contract that establishes a commitment between two parties to have the right to purchase or sell the stock at a predetermined price in the future. The cost is often referred to as the exercise price or strike price. A portion of the underlying equity includes stock options. As a result, the movement of the underlying stock affects how much they cost. The stock options move in tandem with changes in stock price. 

Employee stock options should be accepted if provided to you, and you are taking a market-level salary for your employment because you have nothing to lose. 

Parameters of stock option  

The parameters of stock options are:  

 There are two types of stock options: American and European. American options may be exercised anytime between the purchase and expiration dates. On the expiration date, you can exercise less popular European options. 

  • Whether or not you should exercise an option depends on the strike price. It is the price at which a trader anticipates the stock will be at the expiration date, either above or below. 
  • A trader may be looking to purchase a certain quantity of the underlying shares represented by a contract. 100 shares of the underlying stock are represented by one contract. 
  • The premium, which represents the cost of an option, is calculated by multiplying the call price by the number of contracts purchased, then by 100 
  • Options contracts are only valid for a limited time. The expiration date refers to this. Since an option will likely become in the money the longer the underlying stock is allowed to move, options with longer expiration dates will have more time value. 

Types of stock options  

The two primary categories of stock options are: 

  • The right to sell the stock short, or for less than it is worth, is provided by put options to the owner. If the price of the underlying stock declines, the put option’s intrinsic value will rise. 
  • Call options grant the right to purchase the underlying stock to the option’s owner. If the underlying stock price rises, the value of call options also rises. 

Example of stock options  

The following example will help to understand the idea of stock options better. XYZ buys call options on Apple for November 2016 with a US$108 strike price. For one contract of 100 shares, the option contract premium is US$223.  

AAPL was worth US$109.10 at the time of purchase. XYZ would receive 100 Apple shares the following trading day for US$108 each if the option were exercised. A day later, AAPL started trading at US$109.20. 

XYZ would lose money if he opted to sell the shares at market value because (US$109.20 – US$108 US$)*100 – US$223 = – US$103. This figure does not consider commission or transaction costs; each broker may have fees and commissions. 

Frequently Asked Questions

Stock options are a kind of compensation. Businesses can award them to employees, contractors, consultants and investors. These options, which are contracts, provide an employee with the right to acquire, or exercise, a specified number of shares of the business stock at a preset price, also known as the grant price. 

Many exchanges, including the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE), the Philadelphia Stock Exchange (PSE), and the International Securities Exchange (ISE), among others, list stock options for trade. These options may be purchased or sold depending on your preferred trading technique. 

Probably the most well-known approach to pricing options is the Black-Scholes model. The stock price is multiplied by the cumulative standard normal probability distribution function to get the formula for the model.  

The outcome of the previous computation is then reduced by the strike price’s net present value (NPV) multiplied by the cumulative standard normal distribution. 

To buy stock options,  

  • Create an account to trade options.  
  • Determine which options to buy or sell.  
  • Determine the strike price for the option.  
  • Choose a timeframe for your option. 

However, remember there are a few things to consider before investing in stock options.  

  • First, you need to understand stock options and how they work. 
  • Stock options can be a risky investment. You will lose money if the stock price falls below the set price.  
  • Do your research to ensure that you are investing in a company you believe will see significant growth in the future. 


A stock option enables a trader to wager on the increase or decrease of a certain stock by a given date in the future. Large organisations frequently buy stock options to reduce risk exposure to security. 

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