Stocks, shares, and other forms of equity give investors direct access to a company’s performance. The word “shares” typically refers to a company’s fractional shares; for example, you may say that you own ten shares of Amazon.  

A company’s value will increase when it is operating well and decrease when it performs poorly. People trade shares to gain exposure to the strength and expansion. 

What are shares? 

A company’s capital is split into tiny, equal parts of a finite number called shares. A share is a portion of ownership in a business or a financial asset. Shareholders are people who own stock in a corporation. 

The National Association of Securities Dealers (NASDAQ) and the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) are the two major stock exchanges in the United States where stocks are often purchased and sold electronically. 

Understanding of shares 

Companies sell shares to raise money for their business. They issue shares through an IPO on the primary market and subsequently trade in the secondary market. If you purchase a share, you do so from an investor.  

Stock exchanges handle the total trade of buying and selling shares, with a broker representing each investor. You have a prospect of long-term capital growth when you invest in shares. You can also profit from the company’s dividend payments.  

If you decide to sell your shares, you can do so. If you hold stock in a company directly, you are entitled to voting rights in Annual General Meetings. 

Types of share 


The following are the various types of shares: 

  • Common shares 

The owner of ordinary or common shares is entitled to one vote per share and an equal share of the company’s dividends. If the organisation is dissolved, the proceeds are distributed. Ordinary shares have voting rights, but in the event of a firm dissolution, they rank behind preference shares with regard to capital rights. These shares can be divided into other classes, which will be described later. 

  • Preference shares 

Owners of preference shares are entitled to an annual dividend payment in a set amount. Those who own common shares receive this before others. Moreover, it is frequently expressed as a percentage of the nominal value which is the value stated when the shares were issued. 

Classifications of shares 

The two primary types of stock are common and preferred. However, businesses can alter the characteristics of various classes of stock in any way they see fit. Different classes of shares are given various voting rights because the corporation most frequently wants the voting power to remain with a particular group.  

For instance, a class of shares might be offered to most investors with one vote per share, whereas a select group might own a second class with 10 votes per share. When there are multiple classes of stock, they are typically referred to as Class A and Class B.  

For example, there are two classes of shares in Warren Buffett’s company Berkshire Hathaway (ticker: BRK). The various forms are denoted by adding the letter “BRKa, BRKb” or “BRK.A, BRK.B” following the ticker sign.

Frequently Asked Questions

The maximum number of shares a corporation can legally issue to investors based on its judgement are known as authorised shares. Shares that have been distributed to shareholders by a firm are known as issued shares, and investors can acquire them in return for cash or as compensation paid to employees or suppliers. 

Equity shares are a form of fractional ownership that have the greatest amount of entrepreneurial risk for a trading firm, and these shareholders can cast votes in any organisation. 

Equity shares represent a claim on the corporation’s assets and earnings. They are the most common type of stock and are traded on exchanges. A company may issue equity shares to raise capital, which may be bought and sold by investors. 

Using a broker is the most typical approach to buying and selling shares. Additionally, you can invest indirectly through a managed fund. 

There are six rights granted to equity shareholders. They are: 

  • voting power 
  • ownership  
  • ability to transfer ownership 
  • dividends 
  • the ability to view corporate records, and 
  • the ability to bring legal claims for wrongdoing. 

There is no such thing as a risk-free investment. All investment has some level of risk, and there is always a chance of losing money. However, certain types of investments are generally considered relatively low risk, such as government bonds and mutual funds. Although they might not provide the highest returns, these investments are typically more stable and less prone to lose value. 

Although shares don’t have the same level of safety as cash, savings accounts, or government bonds, they are frequently more secure than risky investments like options or futures. 


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