Primary market

Primary market 

Businesses raise capital in the primary market by issuing debt- or equity-based instruments. The primary market is where investors buy securities from the issuer directly, hence the name. It’s a great approach for businesses to raise money because it allows them to connect with plenty of investors. When looking to acquire additional funding for company entities, understanding this type of market will help you make better judgements. 

What is the primary market? 

A primary market is an entry-level market that makes it easier for organisations like corporations and governments to raise money. Securities are initially introduced to investors by issuing businesses in a primary market. Following the original sale, additional trading is carried over to the secondary market, where additional daily exchanges and trading occur. 

Understanding primary market 

Security creation takes place in the primary market. Businesses first list new stocks and bonds in this market. Companies and governmental bodies sell new shares, bonds, notes, and bills on the primary market to raise money for improvements and expansions to their businesses. 

 New securities – a corporate stock share or a bond – is introduced into the financial market during the main market hours, comparable to a debutante ball or a wedding. Primary markets help businesses and governments attract investors and raise capital for debt repayment or expansion. They also allow wealthy investors to invest, earn money, or seize an early opportunity in a budding business. 

Types of primary markets 

Primary market

The types of primary markets are as follows: 

  • Public issue 

The public issue is how newly produced assets and securities are available for public purchase. Due to this market aspect, the offering is called an IPO (IPO). 

  • Rights issue 

When businesses that have previously offered securities on the platform urge their current shareholders to purchase the new shares they launch, that is a right issue. The process is called a rights issue since it ensures the existing shareholders’ rights in the same firm.  

  • Private placement 

Businesses introduce securities for sale to a select group of investors on the private placement market. The businesses can continue to operate privately here. Participants in the start-up ecosystem typically use this type of issue to approach ultra-high-net-worth people (UHNWIs) and raise money. Furthermore, because of the fewer restrictions for the former, it is simpler to issue these securities than IPOs. 

Functions of primary market 

The functions of a primary market are as follows:  

  • A primary market offers a new issue that has never been traded on another exchange. Organising new issue offers entails, among other things, a thorough evaluation of project viability. Considerations of promoter equity, liquidity ratio, debt-equity ratio, and foreign exchange requirements are all included in the financial arrangements for the purpose.
  • A key marketing sphere also distributes a new issue. Its distribution starts with the release of a new prospectus. It extends an open invitation to the general public to purchase a new issue and offers complete details about the business, the issue, and the associated underwriters.
  • When introducing a new issue, underwriting is crucial. If an underwriter cannot sell the required number of shares to the public, one of its responsibilities in a primary market is to buy the unsold shares. A financial institution may take on the role of an underwriter and receive a commission for doing so. 


Examples of a primary market 

 Start-up ABC submits a bid for a significant project and is successful. However, substantial funding is needed to finish the project. As a result, it starts using securities in the primary market to raise money. An investment bank decides to invest in the securities for a fee after considering the company’s business plan. Thus, aiding the business in obtaining funding to resume work on the halted project. 

Frequently Asked Questions

Primary markets play a crucial role in an economy’s mobilising of savings. Savings from the community are tapped for investments in different ways. The savings finance the investment options.  

 Businesses can raise capital for a reasonable price, and the securities issued in the primary market, as a result, have high liquidity since they are quickly sold in the secondary market.  

 The primary market has much lower odds of price manipulation than the secondary market. By deflating or inflating a security’s price, manipulations impact the fair and free operation of the market. 

The primary market has some disadvantages as well. When an IPO is oversubscribed, it is challenging for ordinary investors to receive an allocation. The share price movement’s history data is unavailable.  

 The time horizons for the financial and fundamental valuations are three to four years. Issues listed in the primary market do not all benefit from listing gains. 

New shares are issued in a primary market. Existing shares are traded in a secondary market. The company receives the money from selling shares on a primary market. In the secondary market, the seller receives payment while the buyer purchases the shares. 

 There is no compensation for the company. In the primary market, securities are issued at a fixed price. In the secondary market, securities are traded at market value.

The primary market’s main role is to promote capital growth by enabling people to turn their savings into investments. It makes it easier for businesses to issue new shares to obtain cash from households directly for debt repayment or business expansion. 

Primary market issues are of different types. The most popular way to release securities of a corporation to the general public is through a public issue. The primary method is an  IPO, which enables businesses to raise cash on the capital market. These securities are listed on the stock markets. The other types are private placements, rights issues, and preferred allotments. 

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